Sample I1 has what texture? What is the appropriate term for the origin of each rock? Diorite, medium- to coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock that commonly is composed of about two-thirds plagioclase feldspar and one-third dark-coloured minerals, such as hornblende or biotite. As magma cools, it begins to crystallise and form solid rock. ... DIORITE PORPHYRY Volcanic rocks of this type are sometimes known as porphyries, with the phenocrysts used as a modifier (e.g. an igneous rock. The presence of sodium-rich feldspar, oligoclase or andesine, in contrast to calcium-rich plagioclase, labradorite or bytownite, is the main distinction between diorite and gabbro . 19. An information card with details on the rock formation, mineral content, characteristics, and uses is included. Choose the best possible answer to the following questions about Key Concept 3 "Compositions of igneous rocks and their meaning." Molten (liquid) rock is called magma. rock which originates from processes during the cooling of a molten rock body called magma; B. 2. d. glassy . Fig. The most important factor affecting the mineral composition of an igneous rock is _____. Rhyolite. This means that intrusive rocks, which are also known as plutonic rocks, cool at a much slower rate than extrusive as they are surrounded by preexisting rock. Compositions range from rocks rich in the framework silicates quartz and potasium feldspar, to those rich in minerals containing magnesium and iron (olivines and pyroxines). The rock to the right is a (an): andesite porphyry basalt rhyolite diorite porphyry diorite. Diorite is medium to coarse-grained due to slow cooling underground. Basalt. The differences between Andesite and Diorite are in their grain size and their cooling rate. The texture of those rocks would be coarse to very coarse, and they would be non-vesicular. (Table 2) 4. The size of crystals in an igneous rock is an important indicator of the conditions where the rock formed. … Igneous rocks are formed from molten rock that has cooled and solidified. Diorite is coarse – grained intrusive igneous rock that commonly mineralogy is plagioclase feldspar and dark colored minerals such as hornblende and biotite.It usually occurs dikes, sills and intrusions with continental crust .Diorite is usually grey to dark-grey in colour, but it can also be black or bluish-grey, and frequently has a greenish cast. 2. Rocks: There are three basic types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The video below is a clip of crystals forming in solution. Pegmatite: Pegmatite is an igneous rock composed almost entirely of crystals that are over one centimeter in diameter. Below are porphyritic dacites (a & b), pumice (c) and andesite (d) from the Mt Lassen, CA eruption of 1915: 1) Andesite (A) Diorite (B) 1 cm 1. flow banding (formed by shearing of the lava as it flows), and vesicles (open cavities that … Answer questions 32 through 67, referring to text and Figures 1-7 for guidance. Igneous rocks are made up of several different mineral crystals that grow within the melt as it cools. Obsidian exhibits this texture. The specimen shown here is about two inches (five centimeters) across. Topaz on albite: A crystal of imperial topaz on an albite matrix from a pocket in the Katlang Pegmatite of Pakistan. The crystal size in igneous rock formations is directly related to the cooling time of the magma. Granite & Gabbro• Pegmatite-exceptionally large crystals e.g. Because of this slow cooling process, crystals in the rock have more time to form, and are therefore larger and usually visible to the naked eye. 3. 1. The rock to the right may have formed in which of the following tectonic settings? Slow cooling allows time for large crystals to form, so intrusive igneous rocks have visible crystals. None of these. The rate of cooling of the magma is rapid, and crystal growth is inhibited. Granite, Basalt, Diorite, Gabbro. glassy texture 1. Volcanic rocks are characteristically fine-grained. 11 Photomicrograph of Granite Classification of Igneous Rocks Based on Mineral Composition and Texture Textures-reflect rate of cooling• Phaneritic-mineral crystals are visible Although both are magmatic rocks with almost the same composition, the main difference between these two rocks is the formation process or the cooling rate of the liquid rock that they initiate. Effect of Cooling Rate. It is recognized by its glassy texture. The same magma on Andesite and Diorite rapidly crystallizes on the Earth's surface and forms Andesite. Therefore, crystal size can be a dependable factor in determining the conditions with which the rock was formed. 0.01 m/d from 1984 to 1986. quartz porphyry). These rocks can be identified by their textures, mineral content, and color. In California, granitic rocks form the core of the Sierra Nevada, cooled from rock melted during the subduction process that also formed the rocks of the Franciscan Complex. If the formed deep underground the magma would cool slowly and create larger interlocking crystals, like Granite, Diorite, Gabbro, Peridotite, Dunite, or even get as big as Pegmatite. DIORITE. In rocks with coarse-grained groundmasses, the phase of slow cooling was followed by a phase of faster underground cooling. Origin of magma. Extrusive volcanic rock formed by the rapid cooling of high viscosity magma. When magma cools within the Earth, the cooling proceeds slowly. We take the boring machine tested in the Äspö underground (where the rocks are diorite and granite) as an example [11,17].According to the penetration rates measured in the field, the maximum penetration per revolution of the cutter head was only 1.15 mm as the total thrust was 1960 kN. Temporal changes in the magnetic anomaly indicate that the magnetized carapace thickened at an average rate of 0.03 ?? Rate of cooling depends on where magma cools. 18. (Table 1) 2. What interpretations can you make about the cooling rate of the magma from which each rock formed? Grain Size & Cooling Rate. Demonstration goals: ... Diorite with large Ca-feldspar crystal. Igneous rocks are classified on two axies: Composition and cooling rate. How did Sample I1 form? b. by fast cooling lava Bowen's Fractionation Principle The fractionation principle is that if equilibrium is not maintained, if the melt cools too quickly for all the reactions to take place, or crystals are removed before they have time to react, then the melt can be divided into two fractions of different compositions. The two dimensions are texture (cooling rate) and mineralogy ... with a two-stage cooling history . Igneous rocks that solidify within the crust are called "intrusive rocks" or "plutonic rocks" (named for Pluto, the Roman God of the Underworld). Refer to Figures 8.6 through 8.9 for guidance. The inside of the Earth is very hot - hot enough to melt rocks. Extrusive igneous rock, also known as volcanic rock, is formed by the cooling of molten magma on the earth's surface. Volcanic rocks often exhibit structures caused by their eruption, e.g. Emplaced bodies of intrusive rock are called "plutons". 11 Photomicrograph of Granite Classification of Igneous Rocks Based on Mineral Composition and Texture Textures-reflect rate of cooling• Phaneritic-mineral crystals are visible e.g. Most intrusive rocks have large, well-formed crystals. Intrusive rocks. For this exercise, you will determine the texture and rate of cooling for the igneous rock samples in your HOL kit. have similar texture. Pegmatite• Aphanitic-crystals not visible e.g. 1. the size of the crystals that form decreases. At a convergent plate boundary (subduction zone)--defines plates of the lithosphere which converge. As the rate of cooling increases. Thus, mineral composition and rock type will differ based on rate of cooling. Besides cooling history, the factors that controls crystallization rate in igneous rocks are: The order of crystallisation of the constituent mineral particles of the rocks. Granite and granodiorite are also found west of the San Andreas fault near Monterey, Pacifica, and Point Reyes, where granite from the south end of the Sierra range has been transported northward by San Andreas … Major minerals include feldspar and hornblende. Because larger grains generally indicate longer cooling rates, the phenocrysts indicate that the magma experienced an initial phase of slow cooling deep underground. b. aphanitic. Rhyolites & Basalt• Porphyritic-large crystals surrounded by small crystals- What is the textural term that best describes each sample? Rate of cooling effects the size of the crystals of the igneous rock. In the simplest terms, Granite and Basalt are end members. a. by magma that cooled slowly. Intrusive rocks form plutons and so are also called plutonic. Diorite produced coarse grain sizes from slow cooling. A pluton is an igneous intrusive rock body that has cooled in the crust. LAB EXERCISE: Part B - Igneous Rock Texture Determine the texture, rate of cooling, and rock names for the photos of igneous rock samples 1-1 through 1-12. c. porphyritic-aphanitic. Cooling Rate: slow, intrusive; Extrusive Equivalent: basalt; Other Characteristics: reflective cleavage surfaces on the visible minerals distinguish gabbro from basalt. Undergraduate Geology - Part 2 (Igneous Processes and Products) Note on Igneous Rocks and Rates of Cooling, created by siobhan.quirk on 17/05/2013. This is easily seen in igneous rock, which may cool at variable rates. For example, rocks that feature larger crystals were more likely formed at lower levels below Earth's surface. a. phaneritic. Silicic magmatic compositions and fast cooling rates prevent the formation of crystals even at the microscopic scale. Refer to Igneous Rocks Photos for more visual examples of each of these igneous rock types. spreading center continent/continent collision zone subduction zone. Granite and gabbro. Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling of the magma that is found beneath the crust. Our study of a magnetic anomaly associated with the recently active dacite dome at Mount St. Helens suggests that the dome consists of a hot, nonmagnetized core surrounded by a cool, magnetized carapace and flanking talus. The magma, which is brought to the surface through fissures or volcanic eruptions, rapidly solidifies.Hence such rocks are fine-grained or even glassy.Basalt is the most common extrusive igneous rock and forms lava flows, lava sheets and lava plateaus. Gabbro occurs when the liquid rock is cooled very slowly over a long period of time in the underground. Diorite is an intrusive plutonic rock with a composition that is intermediate between gabbro and granite. Diorite is an often gray, intrusive igneous rock. Diorite is slowly crystallized inside the earth. Examples include granite, gabbro, and diorite. At a divergent plate boundary (ridge or rift)--defines plates … Glassy. granite diorite. Cooling Rate and Crystal Size. Specimen is about 4.5 x 3.5 x 3.5 centimeters. Most bodies of magma rising to the surface get emplaced (stuck) inside the earth’s crust.
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